This paper reviews ways in which many artists have constructed large sculptures from tubular elements, ranging from single cylinders to toroidal or knotted structures, to assemblies of a large number of bent tubes. A few parameterized generators are introduced that facilitate design and evaluation of a variety of such sculptural forms.
Carlo H. Séquin. "Tubular Sculptures". Bridges Conference, Banff, Canada, pages 87–96, July 2009.