Multi-Resolution Isotropic Strain Limiting
In this paper we describe a fast strain-limiting method that allows stiff, incompliant materials to be simulated efficiently. Unlike prior approaches, which act on springs or individual strain components, this method acts on the strain tensors in a coordinate-invariant fashion allowing isotropic behavior. Our method applies to both two- and three-dimensional strains, and only requires computing the singular value decomposition of the deformation gradient, either a small 2x2 or 3x3 matrix, for each element. We demonstrate its use with triangular and tetrahedral linear-basis elements. For triangulated surfaces in three-dimensional space, we also describe a complementary edge-angle-limiting method to limit out-of-plane bending. All of the limits are enforced through an iterative, non-linear, Gauss-Seidel-like constraint procedure. To accelerate convergence, we propose a novel multi-resolution algorithm that enforces fitted limits at each level of a non-conforming hierarchy. Compared with other constraint-based techniques, our isotropic multi-resolution strain-limiting method is straightforward to implement, efficient to use, and applicable to a wide range of shell and solid materials.
Huamin Wang, James F. O'Brien, and Ravi Ramamoorthi. "Multi-Resolution Isotropic Strain Limiting". ACM Transactions on Graphics, 29(6):156:1–10, December 2010. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2010, Seoul, South Korea.