This photograph has been altered: Testing the effectiveness of image forensic labeling on news image credibility
Despite the ubiquity of images and videos in online news environments, much of the existing research on misinformation and its correction is solely focused on textual misinformation, and little is known about how ordinary users evaluate fake or manipulated images and the most effective ways to label and correct such falsities. We designed a visual forensic label of image authenticity, Picture-O-Meter, and tested the label’s efficacy in relation to its source and placement in an experiment with 2440 participants. Our findings demonstrate that, despite human beings’ general inability to detect manipulated images on their own, image forensic labels are an effective tool for counteracting visual misinformation.
Cuihua Shen, Mona Kasra, and James F. O'Brien. "This photograph has been altered: Testing the effectiveness of image forensic labeling on news image credibility". Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review, 2(3):1–17, May 2021.